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Paris Suspect Said Attack Was Aimed at Paper That Mocked Islam’s Prophet


PARIS — The suspect in the stabbing of two people outside the former Paris office of the satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo has confessed and said his attack was directed at the publication because it printed cartoons mocking the Prophet Muhammad, a French judicial official said on Saturday.

Charlie Hebdo’s former office was the target of a January 2015 terrorist attack that killed 12 people after the weekly first published the cartoons. It republished them in early September on the opening day of the trial of 14 people suspected of having links to the 2015 attack.

The stabbing took place during the long-awaited trial of alleged accomplices in the 2015 attack, which has forced France to relive the trauma of a series of terrorist strikes in the past few years.

French authorities have said that the suspect, who was arrested shortly after the attack on Friday, is an 18-year-old Pakistani man who arrived in France three years ago as an unaccompanied minor. Although he was briefly arrested a month ago for carrying a screwdriver, he had not been previously identified as an Islamist radical, France’s interior minister, Gérald Darmanin, told France 2 television on Friday.

The judicial official, who insisted on anonymity because French authorities have not yet publicly confirmed the suspect’s statement, said the man had explained his motives for the attack, which took place next to a mural paying tribute to the victims of the 2015 killings.

French media widely reported on Saturday that the suspect had confessed and linked the attack to Charlie Hebdo. But the government has not made any public statement yet on what motivated him, whether he acted in direct retaliation to the republication of the caricatures, or whether he acted alone or had ties to a terrorist network.

The republication of the caricatures stoked the ire of some Muslims around the world, especially in Pakistan, where demonstrators rallied to condemn Charlie Hebdo. And Al Qaeda responded by calling on people to strike the newspaper.

The attack comes at a politically sensitive time in France as politicians, with an eye toward presidential elections in 2022, are already trying to compete on issues related to crime, immigration and Islam. President Emmanuel Macron is expected to unveil a policy to combat “separatism,’’ focusing on radical Islam, in the next few months.

The suspect’s status as an immigrant could further fuel debates in France over immigration, an issue that has underpinned the rise of the far right politically. Mr. Macron’s main rival in the previous presidential election and his likely challenger in the next one, Marine Le Pen, immediately drew a link between the stabbing and what she has long described as the county’s lax immigration policies.

Many could have avoided becoming victims, she tweeted, if France had “systematically expelled illegals” and “hunted down Islamism.’’

The stabbing adds to the traumas afflicting French society, and again raises questions about competing values in a country that, ethnically and religiously, has been transformed in recent decades.

On Friday, Charlie Hebdo tweeted, “This tragic episode shows us once again that fanaticism, intolerance, the origins of which will be revealed by the investigation, are still present in French society.”

But when Charlie Hebdo’s editors reprinted the drawings early this month, the decision was regarded by some as commitment to free speech but by others as needless provocation.

Images of the Prophet Muhammad are proscribed in Islam, and insulting religion under some countries’ blasphemy laws can carry the death penalty.

Mr. Macron defended the magazine’s “right to blasphemy.’’ But others — overseas but also in France itself — saw the republication as a provocative act that leveled insults at Muslim people.

In the day following the republication, a slogan showing solidarity with the magazine, #IAmStillCharlie, trended on Twitter in France, but was challenged by the opposite, #IAmNotCharlie.

A study released in early September by the Fondation Jean Jaurès, a Paris-based research institute, found that 69 percent of respondents who identified as Muslim said that the magazine had been wrong to publish the caricatures back in 2006. By contrast, 59 percent of respondents overall supported the initial publication.

Jean-Charles Brisard, director of the Paris-based Center for the Analysis of Terrorism, said that threats against Charlie Hebdo — which moved to highly secure offices elsewhere after the 2015 attack — had increased in recent months.

The interior minister, Mr. Darmanin, said that the nature of the attack was “an Islamist terrorism modus operandi, obviously, there’s little doubt about that.”

He added that the level of danger in the street of Charlie Hebdo’s former offices had been “underestimated” despite the fact that authorities had not reported any specific threats.

French prosecutors have opened a terrorism investigation and several acquaintances of the main suspect remain in custody — a standard procedure after such an incident. No details were disclosed as to their identities.

Two employees of Premières Lignes, a documentary production company located near Charlie Hebdo’s former offices, were wounded in Friday’s attack.

Speaking to France 2 on Friday, Luc Hermann, a journalist and filmmaker at Premières Lignes, said that the assailant first struck the woman in her face, then the man, before returning to stab the woman again.

Mr. Hermann said that these were “blows to kill, blows to really cause extreme pain, blows to the face, blows to the neck.”

French authorities are concerned about the evolution of terrorist threats on their soil, as they have evolved from organized attacks, such as the November 2015 attacks in Paris, to isolated acts that can be difficult to prevent.

“Threats today are increasingly difficult to identify and neutralize because we are confronted with threats that are extremely diffuse and protean,” Mr. Brisard said, adding that they come from individuals unknown to the authorities who may respond to calls from terrorist organizations.

In March 2018, a gunman killed four people in a supermarket in southern France, including a police officer, and two months later an attacker stabbed five people near the Paris Opera, one fatally. In October 2019, a veteran police employee killed four of his colleagues in a knife attack at the headquarters of the Paris police, in what the authorities later called a terrorist attack.

Aurelien Breeden contributed researching

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Covid-19 Live Updates: Latest News and Analysis


The study looked at blood samples from 28,500 patients on dialysis in 46 states, the first such nationwide analysis.

The results roughly matched those of an analysis to be released next week by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which found that about 10 percent of blood samples from sites across the country contained antibodies to the virus.

Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the C.D.C., was referring to that analysis when he told a congressional committee this week that 90 percent of people in the country were still vulnerable to the virus, a C.D.C. spokeswoman said.

An accurate estimate of the country’s immunity is important because President Trump, in collaboration with his new medical adviser, Dr. Scott Atlas, has tentatively promoted the idea of reaching herd immunity by canceling lockdowns, mask-wearing campaigns and social-distancing mandates. The plan would be to let the virus wash through the population while trying to protect the people deemed most vulnerable.

Most public health experts say that such a policy would lead to hundreds of thousands of additional deaths, as it is impossible to protect all Americans who are elderly or have underlying conditions like diabetes and heart disease that render a person more likely to become seriously ill or to die.

The study of dialysis patients, done by scientists from Stanford University, found wide variances in antibody levels around the country. In the New York metropolitan area, including New Jersey, antibody levels were higher than 25 percent of samples tested. In the western United States, they were below 5 percent.

Over all, the researchers estimated the prevalence to be about 9.3 percent.

The implication, Dr. Redfield said in a statement, is that most people in the country are still susceptible to the virus and therefore should continue to take steps such as wearing masks, staying six feet away from other people, washing hands frequently, staying home when sick and “being smart about crowds.”

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Brushing off Criticism, China’s Xi Calls Policies in Xinjiang ‘Totally Correct’


Brushing aside condemnation from Western powers, China’s leader, Xi Jinping, called his policies in the ethnically divided region of Xinjiang a “totally correct” success, and vowed more efforts to imprint Chinese national identity “deep in the soul” of Uighurs and other largely Muslim minorities.

Mr. Xi made the remarks during a two-day conference that ended Saturday, which is likely to set the direction of Chinese policy in Xinjiang for years to come. While the initial official summary of the meeting gave few details, Mr. Xi’s unyielding words signaled that condemnation from the United States, the European Union and other powers has not shifted his determination to subdue Xinjiang’s Muslim minorities through a dual strategy of political indoctrination and state-driven demographic change.

“Viewed overall, Xinjiang is enjoying a favorable setting of social stability with the people living in peace and contentment,” Mr. Xi told the meeting, according to the summary issued by Xinhua news agency. “The facts have abundantly demonstrated that our national minority work has been a success.”

Mr. Xi’s speech was revealed at the end of a week that exposed the stark costs of China’s security strategy in Xinjiang, as well as continued international ire over the indoctrination camps and detention sites that have held hundreds of thousands — and possibly a million or more — Muslim minorities in Xinjiang. But Mr. Xi gave no signs of markedly softening his policies there.

The Chinese Communist Party’s strategy in Xinjiang had been proved “totally correct,” Mr. Xi said, adding that “it must be held to for the long term.”

The implications of Mr. Xi’s latest comments on Xinjiang may take months, even years, to become clear. Mr. Xi used a similar meeting in 2014 to demand a much tougher approach to unrest, resistance and separatist violence in the region.

Ever since Chinese Communist Party forces took over Xinjiang in 1949, the authorities have struggled to establish lasting control over the region’s Uighurs, Kazakhs and other minorities. Their Turkic language and Muslim traditions have set them apart from China’s Han majority, and many members of these minorities have resented the expanding presence and power of the Han Chinese majority.

After a string of attacks and protests by Uighurs, Mr. Xi set policy in Xinjiang on a more radical course after 2014, leading to the construction of hundreds of indoctrination camps intended to weaken Uighur and Kazakh adherence to Islam, and to turn them into loyal citizens who disavow separatism. At the same time, the Chinese government has tried to uproot hundreds of thousands of Uighurs from villages and assign them urban and factory jobs, where officials hope they will earn more and cast aside their traditional lifestyles.

The Chinese government has kept building detention facilities in the region, including hulking prisonlike complexes hemmed by high walls, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute said in a report released on Thursday. Separately, another report released by the Institute, and a parallel investigation by The New York Times, found that thousands of mosques, shrines and other Islamic religious sites have been demolished in Xinjiang since 2017.

In his published remarks, Mr. Xi did not expressly mention the indoctrination camps, which Chinese government officials have defended as a friendly vocational training centers. Even so, Mr. Xi’s broad comments suggested that he wants the government to continue indoctrination efforts across Xinjiang, even if the camps play a reduced role in that campaign.

“Incorporate education about a shared awareness of Chinese nationhood into education for Xinjiang cadres, youth and children, and society,” Mr. Xi said. “Make a shared awareness of Chinese nationhood take root deep in the soul.”

A Times investigation last year cited internal speeches by Mr. Xi in 2014, when he called for all-out “struggle against terrorism, infiltration and separatism” in Xinjiang using the “organs of dictatorship,” and showing “absolutely no mercy.” But it took years for his broad demands to lead to mass detentions into the new camps.

At his latest meeting, Mr. Xi’s published remarks sounded less alarmed than he did in 2014, suggesting that his government feels it has a firmer grip on Xinjiang. The published remarks did not mention terror threats but focused on what he said were rising incomes of the people of Xinjiang and government spending.

Mr. Xi’s latest speech appeared to signal that the Chinese government would continue investing heavily in industrial and urban development in Xinjiang. In a recent government white paper, Beijing defended labor allocation programs for rural Uighurs in Xinjiang that many international experts say rely on pressure and coercion to keep the job recruits in their posts.

But products from Xinjiang are increasingly shunned by Western companies, worried that they may be implicated in accusations of using forced labor.

On Wednesday, the House of Representatives approved legislation that would bar imports from Xinjiang unless they were proven not to have used forced labor. The Trump administration has imposed sanctions on officials deemed responsible for policy in Xinjiang, and imposed restrictions on imports of clothing, hair products and technological goods from that region.

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For U.K.’s Boris Johnson, Hardball Tactics Seem the Only Way to a Brexit Deal


LONDON — Britain was at sea, lost in a “fog of self-doubt.” It had dithered only to retreat. And in its pursuit of Brexit, it exuded a “conspicuous infirmity of purpose.”

When Boris Johnson, now prime minister, resigned as foreign secretary in 2018, he was brutal in his critique of the government he had quit and of its leader, Theresa May.

Now, more than a year after her ouster, trade talks with the European Union are deadlocked, the mood is poisonous, and there are only weeks left to salvage a deal as Britain prepares to leave the bloc’s economic zone in January.But Mr. Johnson has already achieved what some analysts say is his one overriding objective: to avoid any comparisons of his negotiating style to that of his predecessor, Mrs. May.

While critics lampooned her as weak and risk averse, Mr. Johnson has gone to the other extreme, most recently by threatening to walk away from parts of a Brexit withdrawal agreement that he struck with the European Union only last year.

That prompted outrage, threats of legal action and speculation that the trade negotiations could collapse. But many analysts say this is just another move from Mr. Johnson’s hardball Brexit playbook.

“He absolutely had to have a bust-up to prove he wasn’t Theresa May,” said Anand Menon, a professor of European politics at King’s College, London, referring to the government’s threat to override parts of an agreement that was designed to prevent the creation of a hard border between Ireland, an E.U. member, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom.

Mr. Menon puts at 50:50 the odds of Britain’s leaving the European Union’s economic zone in January with no trade deal at all.

But in stating this month that this would still be a “good outcome,” Mr. Johnson made a blunt point that, unlike Mrs. May, he has a solid majority in Parliament and the power to take an economic risk by leaving the bloc without a trade agreement.

“There is a clarity about what Boris Johnson is doing that was lacking under Theresa May,” Professor Menon said, “so to that extent he can still bask in the glow of doing better than she did.”

Whether that will translate into a deal will be tested in the coming weeks as the Brexit negotiations reach a climax with just a little cautious optimism in the air.

The backdrop to those talks is one of acute mistrust, worsened when Mr. Johnson threatened to walk back part of the withdrawal agreement that he struck last year. But the main theory in Brussels is that this was designed to raise the stakes in the negotiations, gain diplomatic attention and accelerate engagement at the highest political level.

These discussions are stuck on the issues of fisheries quotas and, most seriously, on Britain’s reluctance to agree on a set of antitrust rules with the European Union that would limit London’s ability to subsidize its own companies (and therefore, Brussels fears, dump cheap goods in continental Europe).

Historically, British governments — and particularly ones under the Conservative Party, which Mr. Johnson now leads — have tended to spend less cash this way than many of their continental counterparts, making this an odd issue on which to torpedo an agreement.

The blockage seems to come from Mr. Johnson’s powerful adviser, Dominic Cummings, who sees no need for Britain to tie itself to any European rules and wants the freedom to subsidize the high-tech industries of the future, said Charles Grant, the director of the Center for European Reform, a research institute.

The combative Mr. Cummings appears content to do without any trade deal with the European Union and, in line with its hardball approach, the British government has gone into battle over an issue that few Britons care about. But there are differing shades of opinion and priorities in Downing Street.

“Ultimately I think Boris Johnson wants a deal,” Mr. Grant said.

True, Britain is now asking for a much more basic agreement than Mrs. May sought, and the economic gains of striking one are correspondingly lower. But the economy is more important now because the coronavirus has left British businesses reeling and in a weaker position to cope with the fallout of a “no deal” exit.

In any event, some Brexit watchers think they have seen similar tactics from Mr. Johnson before.

Last year, he talked tough but then retreated and signed the withdrawal agreement from which he is now threatening to reject. He has also been threatening to walk out of the current trade talks since early summer if progress was insufficient. Yet even as seemingly little or nothing of substance was accomplished until recently, his negotiating team remained at the table.

Mr. Johnson’s pugilistic negotiating style should therefore not come as a surprise. Even while serving in Mrs. May’s cabinet, he let it be known that he favored a more muscular and unpredictable approach, that he wanted to try to seize the initiative in a set of talks where, in terms of economic scale, Britain is by far the smaller player.

His well-known appetite for making the big play was reflected in private musings, which were quickly leaked, about what President Trump would do to negotiate a Brexit deal. “There’d be all sorts of breakdowns, all sorts of chaos,” Mr. Johnson said. “Everyone would think he’d gone mad. But actually you might get somewhere. It’s a very, very good thought.”

This strategy, along with a desire to banish the memory of Mrs. May’s premiership, explains much of what has since occurred in the fractious discussions between London and Brussels, and the consequent brinkmanship.

For many supporters of Brexit, Mrs. May’s government was nothing short of a humiliation, with Parliament paralyzed, Britain missing deadlines for leaving the European Union and their project ridiculed. Some also felt that their warnings had been ignored because, while Mrs. May insisted that having no Brexit deal would be better than getting a bad one, few felt that she meant it.

“Any negotiator knows that you can only obtain a good outcome if you are willing to walk away from a bad one,” Peter Lilley, a former minister who supports Brexit, wrote in 2017.

When Dominic Raab, who is now foreign secretary, resigned as Brexit secretary the following year, he repeated the argument, insisting: “To be taken seriously, we must be willing to walk away.”

Mr. Johnson, having threatened to do exactly that — and having distanced himself so thoroughly from his predecessor — has given himself the political space with Brexit supporters to compromise should he opt to do so.

“Ultimately, if Boris Johnson wants a deal, he can overcome any opposition in the Conservative Party — it will take what it is given,” said Mr. Grant, who worked as a journalist in Brussels at the same time as Mr. Johnson in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

“It’s theater and it might work,” Mr. Grant said of Mr. Johnson’s aggressive style — although he added that as with any high wire act, it can always go wrong, particularly with this political performer.

“Boris Johnson doesn’t necessarily have a strategy for delivering what he wants,” Mr. Grant said. “He lives from week to week.”

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FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO: ‘Schitt’s Creek’ Star, and His Fans, Are Taking Indigenous Studies

FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO


Each session begins with Dr. Bear lighting a small piece of sage and wafting the smoke over her face, arms and hair in a smudge, or “spiritual cleansing.” The sessions, it becomes clear, are as much about Indigenous ways of knowing and learning, as the historical content.

“You can’t just read about it abstractly in an ethnography and absorb it in the Western possessiveness sense of knowledge,” said Dr. Gareau, an expert on Metis history who sees his role in the sessions as bringing levity. “The Indigenous articulation of knowledge is through experience and visiting.”

“A big part of what I love about this thing we do with Dan,” he added, “is we are visiting.”

On the other side of country, in his parents’ Toronto home where he’s returned to weather the pandemic, Mr. Levy is an earnest listener, absorbing each lesson, extrapolating from it and mixing in his Jewish ancestry and experiences as a gay person.

“The word discovery is used time and time again in our learning,” he said in a discussion about the fur trade between First Nations and colonial merchants. “They didn’t discover a place. It was inhabited. They just visited a place and happened to take over.”

He continually repeats how grateful he is for the weekly discussions. He calls them “my favorite part of the week.”

For fans, the experience has been a giant consciousness-raising session.

“It made me ashamed of my country and the lack of my knowledge,” said Sharon Thirkettle, a 70-year-old artist from Calgary. Although it was Mr. Levy’s participation that inspired her to sign up for the course, she said she had stuck with it because of the engrossing subject matter.

Marla Taviano called the Sunday sessions a “spiritual and emotional experience.”

“Not just my brain, but my heart and body is connecting with this,” said Ms. Taviano, a 44-year-old writer in Columbia, S.C., who takes copious notes throughout the sessions and has ordered many of the books mentioned by professors.

FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO

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FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO: Tasmania Whale Rescue Ends With 108 Saved and Over 300 Dead

FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO


SYDNEY, Australia — Wildlife officials in the Australian state of Tasmania began disposing of hundreds of dead pilot whales on Saturday after ending rescue attempts in one of the largest incidents of whale beaching ever recorded globally.

In all, rescuers saved 108 out of the 470 whales that landed this week on a wide, remote sandbank in Tasmania’s rugged Macquarie Harbour. That prompted a five-day rescue effort involving dozens of volunteers who braved cold waters to guide as many of the animals as possible back out to sea.

Kris Carlyon, a marine biologist with the Tasmanian government, said that most of the whales that were turned around had not gotten stranded again, a silver lining in an otherwise sad affair. And most of those freed, including orphaned calves, are expected to recover from the traumatic event.

As officials concluded that rescue efforts could no longer save any more whales, however, the bodies of the dead were being corralled into pods and enclosed with water booms to keep them together and protected from sharks.

Rob Buck, the manager of the state’s Parks and Wildlife Service, said that 15 whales had been disposed of at sea and that removing the remaining ones would take several days.

“Collection and disposal is being undertaken with the assistance of aquaculture companies whose equipment and expertise on the harbor is essential for a timely and effective outcome,” he said in a statement.

The species, part of the dolphin family, is highly social, which may explain why such a large group ended up together on the sand.

Tasmania has long been a global hot spot for the whale strandings, but a thorough understanding of why animals beach themselves in the first place is incomplete.

In this case, scientists said, the whales may have taken a wrong turn, chased their prey into shallow waters or followed a dying matriarch who intended to beach herself.

FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO

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In Melbourne, Springtime Ushers in a New Sense of Hope


The Australia Letter is a weekly newsletter from our Australia bureau. This week’s issue is written by Besha Rodell, a columnist with the Australia bureau.

There are blossoms on the trees in Melbourne and days of cold rain and blustering wind, but also days of sweet-smelling breezes and warm sunshine. This has been a hard year for my hometown, which is still undergoing one of the world’s strictest and longest lockdowns because of the pandemic.

But this week, finally, I sense a new collective emotion in the city after months of resignation and sadness. As our Covid-19 case numbers steadily drop and restrictions ease ever so slightly, the mood of the city feels like the weather: unpredictable and slightly chaotic but warmer, more ebullient. It feels like hope.

Small things make a huge difference. Single people are now allowed to visit one other household, meaning my sister has again taken up her rightful place on my couch a few times a week, a comfort I won’t ever take for granted again. We are now allowed to gather outdoors in groups of two, and as a result the parks and median strips are again dotted with people sitting on blankets soaking up the sunshine. Melbourne seems to be coming back to life slowly, like the budding trees around us.

This is not to say that the worries of the greater world are being ignored. In my neighborhood this week, I overheard people fretting about the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and the potential for the U.S. Senate to rush through a new Supreme Court justice before the presidential election.

While taking advantage of one of my new freedoms — as of this past week, Melbournians are allowed two hours of outdoor time rather than one — I walked behind a mother and son on the Park Street bike trail as she explained to him all the ways that President Trump could hold on to power even if he technically loses the election.

But despite these worries, and so many others, I am allowing myself great gulps of joy and hope, emotions that have been scarce these past few months. I am so proud of my city, its resilience and deep sense of community and shared responsibility. I remind myself that joy and hope are not finite resources, and even in troubled times it is appropriate to find and feel as much happiness as possible.

How are you finding happiness these days? Let us know at nytaustralia@nytimes.com.

Here are this week’s stories:

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Pasta, Wine and Inflatable Pools: How Amazon Conquered Italy in the Pandemic


NAPLES, Italy — Ludovica Tomaciello had never shopped on Amazon before being trapped at her parents’ house in March during Italy’s coronavirus lockdown. Bored one afternoon scrolling TikTok, she spotted hair scrunchies that she then tracked down and ordered on Amazon.

When the package arrived, she was hooked. She soon signed up for Amazon Prime and turned to the site to buy a tapestry and neon lights to decorate her bedroom; halter tops, jeans and magenta Air Jordan sneakers; and a remote to wirelessly take selfies for Instagram.

“My mom was like, ‘Can you stop this?’” Ms. Tomaciello, 19, who is pursuing a language degree, said while at a cafe near her home in Avellino, about 20 miles east of Naples. When stores reopened in May, Amazon remained her preferred way to shop because of the convenience, selection and prices, she said. One friend even asked her to use it to discreetly order a pregnancy test.

Amazon has been one of the biggest winners in the pandemic as people in its most established markets — the United States, Germany and Britain — have flocked to it to buy everything from toilet paper to board games. What has been less noticed is that people in countries that had traditionally resisted the e-commerce giant are now also falling into its grasp after retail stores shut down for months because of the coronavirus.

The shift has been particularly pronounced in Italy, which was one of the first countries hard hit by the virus. Italians have traditionally preferred to shop in stores and pay cash. But after the government imposed Europe’s first nationwide virus lockdown, Italians began buying items online in record numbers.

Even now, as Italy has done better than most places to turn the tide on the virus and people return to stores, the behavioral shift toward e-commerce has not halted. People are using Amazon to buy staples like wine and ham, as well as web cameras, printer cartridges and fitness bands. At one point, orders of inflatable swimming pools through the site were so backlogged that some customers complained.

“The change is real, the change is deep, and the change is here to stay,” said David Parma, who has conducted surveys about shifting consumer behavior in Italy for Ipsos in Milan. “Amazon is the biggest winner.”

North America is Amazon’s largest market, accounting for about two-thirds of its $245.5 billion global consumer business. But the Seattle-based company has been targeting Europe and other new markets to grow.

Amazon entered Italy in 2010; its first sale in the country was a children’s book. But the company had only muted success over the next decade. Fewer than 40 percent of Italians shopped online last year, compared with 87 percent in Britain and 79 percent in Germany, according to Eurostat, a European Union government statistics group.

Amazon was hampered in Italy by a lack of widespread broadband and poor roads for delivering packages, especially in the south. Italy has the oldest population in Europe, and many people are also wary of providing their financial details online. E-commerce accounts for only 8 percent of retail spending in the country.

“There were some structural issues that we had to face,” said Mariangela Marseglia, Amazon’s country manager for Italy. “Unfortunately, our country was and still is one of those where technological understanding and tech culture is low.”

The turning point was the pandemic. Mr. Parma said 75 percent of Italians shopped online during the lockdown. Total online sales are estimated to grow 26 percent to a record 22.7 billion euros this year, according to researchers from Polytechnic University of Milan. Netcomm, an Italian retail consortium, called it a “10-year evolutionary leap,” with more than two million Italians trying e-commerce for the first time between January and May.

Hurdles remain for Amazon. Small and midsize businesses are an integral part of Italian society. They make up roughly 67 percent of the economy, excluding finance, and about 78 percent of employment, which are higher than E.U. averages, according to E.U. statistics.

In Gragnano, a hilltop town near the Amalfi Coast with a 500-year history of pasta manufacturing, Ciro Moccia, the owner of La Fabbrica della Pasta, said Amazon was a “dangerous” monopoly that could destroy businesses like his that rely on conveying the quality of a product.

But during the lockdown, his company had no choice but to sell on Amazon after many stores shut. Standing above the family’s factory recently, where semolina flour was mixed with spring water and pressed into 140 different pasta shapes, Mr. Moccia said, “I am very worried.”

His son, Mario, 24, who tried for years to get his father to sell more online, said he saw it as an opportunity.

“If you are not on Amazon, you don’t have the same visibility,” he said.

Amazon’s success has drawn scrutiny. Unions have also criticized Amazon’s labor practices, including staging a multiday strike in March over virus-related safety policies. Italian regulators are investigating it for price gouging during the pandemic. In 2017, Amazon agreed to pay €100 million, or roughly $118 million, to settle a government tax dispute.

Ms. Marseglia said Amazon was “a lifeline for customers” in the pandemic and provided a new way for businesses to reach people online.

Amazon has rushed to keep up with demand. It plans to open two new fulfillment centers and seven delivery stations in Italy. It also is aiming to hire roughly 1,600 more people by the end of the year, pushing its full-time work force to 8,500 from fewer than 200 in 2011.

“We are accelerating the rhythm with which we make investments and hire new people,” said Ms. Marseglia, who is originally from Puglia in southern Italy.

With unemployment about 9 percent nationwide — and closer to 20 percent in areas of southern Italy — many are eager for Amazon to expand.

When Francesca Gemma graduated from college in 2016, Amazon was the only company hiring in her area. She now works at an Amazon fulfillment center picking hundreds of products from the shelves every hour so the goods can be shipped to customers.

“On the first day, the muscles of my legs felt like I had done a marathon — I couldn’t climb up the stairs,” she said. “It’s not for everyone, but it’s a job.”

Ms. Gemma, who is also a representative for Cgil, a national labor union, inside the center, said orders had skyrocketed during the lockdown and remained high. But she said that besides some bonuses she received at the peak of the emergency, Amazon did not provide warehouse staff much else to share in its success.

“Nothing remained for workers,” Ms. Gemma said, adding that her work has become more monotonous because of the enforcement of the sanitary protocols.

Amazon said it paid higher-than-average wages for warehouse work.

Amazon has made an effort to win over Italians. Parents are encouraged to shop on its website through a program that can steer a percentage of their purchases to their children’s school.

In Calitri, a village of 4,000 people in southern Italy, Amazon sponsored a Christmas festival last year as part of a marketing campaign to show it could reach even the most isolated areas. It paid for a Christmas tree in the town square and provided gifts to children. The mayor hoped it would lead more artisans and farmers to sell through the site.

But Luciano Capossela, a jeweler in Calitri, helped organize a protest of the Christmas festival with other shop owners, who closed their stores for the night and blacked out their windows.

He has watched as the community has embraced Amazon. One customer recently texted him a screenshot of a wristwatch for sale on Amazon, asking if Mr. Capossela could match the price. When he said the Amazon price was lower than what he could get from a distributor, the customer never replied.

“If we keep going this way in 10 to 15 years, we will only have Amazon and everything else will no longer exist,” Mr. Capossela said. In an area where depopulation is so bad that some property is for sale for just 1 euro, he said last year’s protest was meant as a warning: “A village with couriers and without shops.”

He pulled up a picture on his phone taken the morning after the Amazon festival. It showed that the Christmas tree had blown over in a storm.

“It was God’s will,” he said.

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Pandemic Will ‘Take Our Women 10 Years Back’ in the Workplace


As if working mothers did not have enough to worry about, experts are now sounding the alarm that progress toward gender equality may be the latest in a long list of casualties of the coronavirus pandemic.

Substantial research has shown that most professional gender gaps are in fact motherhood gaps: women without children are much closer to parity with men when it comes to salaries and promotions, but mothers pay a large career penalty.

Women tend to take on more of the burdens of caring for children and the family. To go to work, they need someone to help with that care. But fathers have been slow to change their behavior. And without subsidies, private child care can be prohibitively expensive.

Workplaces already tend to penalize women who choose to work fewer hours or need more flexibility, and that, too, is proving to be exacerbated in the pandemic.

“The bottom line is that based on decades of research we know that there was one institution that was effective at limiting gender inequality and encouraging women’s participation in the workplace, and it was early childhood education,” said Claudia Olivetti, an economist at the University of Chicago.

Now, the pandemic — and its hobbling of schools and child-care providers — is taking that away, too, piling pressure on working mothers, like me.

Around the world, working women are facing brutally hard choices about whether to stay home if they haven’t already been laid off. And the effect may be particularly severe in countries like the United States, where the pandemic is compounding inequalities that women already faced as a result of the lack of guaranteed paid maternity leave and affordable child care.

“The question,” said Dr. Olivetti, who studies gender inequality, “is how far back do we go?”

Israel is both an example of subsidized child care’s power to narrow gender gaps at work, and a cautionary tale about how easily the pandemic can shatter that fragile progress.

The Israeli government provides free early childhood education from age 3, and means-tested day care for many babies and younger toddlers. As a consequence, before the pandemic, women’s overall labor force participation had reached 74 percent, significantly higher than the O.E.C.D. average of 66 percent, according to a recent report from the Taub Center for Social Policy Studies, an Israeli think tank. The gender wage gap, though persistent, was narrowing.

Then came Covid-19. Schools and day care centers closed in mid-March, and the child care that had allowed so many mothers to work was gone.

“The first impact is that the unemployment rate is growing faster for women than for men,” said Liora Bowers, the author of the Taub Center report. Women are a minority of Israel’s labor force, but make up 56 percent of those who have lost their jobs since the pandemic began.

Nor was the phenomenon the result of layoffs being concentrated in heavily female jobs: Ms. Bowers found that in 18 out of 19 industries, women filed for unemployment at higher rates than their representation in the industry.

Women already held more precarious positions in the work force — working fewer hours, for less money, with shorter tenures and in lower-ranking jobs than men. The loss of child care limited many working mothers’ hours and availability even further, meaning they were often the first to be selected for layoffs and unpaid leave, the report concluded. And it noted that many families appear to be deciding that if they need one parent to give up a job and prioritize child care, it should be the lower-paid parent — usually the mother.

Sveta Skibinsky Raskin, a mother of five who lives in Jerusalem, worked as a writer while her children were in school and day care. But when the schools closed, she had to stop. “I tried for a week and I just couldn’t do it,” she said. “I can’t work in an environment that constantly requires my attention.”

Even when schools reopened in May, they were too unpredictable to rely on, she said. As we spoke, her two oldest children were self-isolating at home after some classmates tested positive for the virus. Now, with the country back in lockdown to combat a second wave, and schools closed once again, “a lot of women are having to make difficult choices,” she said.

It is likely to be worse in the United States.

Before the pandemic, many American mothers were effectively forced to stop working for some period of time because they could not afford paid child care. And research shows that the longer a woman is out of the work force, the more severe the long-term effects on her earnings will be.

A 2018 study by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research found that an employment gap of four years or more leads to a whopping 65 percent reduction in annual earnings, compared with a 39 percent decrease after a one-year break. As school closures force women out of the workplace for a year or two more than planned, that will have lifelong consequences for their financial stability.

A July report from McKinsey Global found that in the United States, where women made up 43 percent of the work force, they accounted for 56 percent of Covid-related job losses — though it is unclear how much of that is specifically because of day-care and school volatility.

By contrast, Sweden, which heavily subsidizes day care and has one of the highest rates of female labor participation in the developed world, has kept schools and day-care centers open throughout the pandemic. Although this has been questionable as a public health strategy — Sweden’s death rate from the virus has been higher than its neighbors — it has allowed working parents to avoid the burdens of lockdown.

Although data is scarce, the government predicts that Swedish men are more vulnerable to Covid-related unemployment than women.

As with most social phenomena, this plays out differently for wealthy women than for poor ones. Research shows that when high-earning couples have children, they tend to divide responsibilities, with one parent stepping back from a career to take on the increased care duties, and the other making work a priority — and in heterosexual couples it is usually the mother who steps back.

Once on the “mommy track,” women make less money and have fewer opportunities for advancement. “If the woman is the secondary earner then it is less costly at the margin to cut her hours” when a crisis like the pandemic hits, Dr. Olivetti said.

School Reopenings ›

Back to School

Updated Sept. 25, 2020

The latest on how schools are reopening amid the pandemic.

Poorer families tend to have more parity between the parents’ earnings. But they rely on both incomes to survive, and are also more likely to have jobs that must be done in-person rather than remotely. When schools and day cares close, there is no one to care for young children or supervise older ones’ remote schooling if both parents work. But if one stays home, the family faces financial catastrophe.

“Trying to help working families ease this child-care constraint, it’s not just a gender inequality issue. It’s also an income inequality issue,” Dr. Olivetti said.

Women from minority and immigrant backgrounds are even more vulnerable to the pressures of lockdown, said Zinthiya Ganeshpanchan, who runs the Zinthiya Trust, a charity serving disadvantaged women in Leicester, England.

“They are often living in overcrowded living situations. Many had three, four children living in just a two or three-bedroom flat with extended family,” she said. “Many were also dealing with domestic violence.”

The loss of school and day care, Ms. Ganeshpanchan said, “is going to take our women 10 years back. Because the only way for women to improve their public participation is by reducing the extra burden of caring responsibilities they have.”

The British government has said it is committed to keeping schools open this fall, with a particular focus on the youngest children having access to in-person education.

Unfortunately, as parents across the country are now discovering, it doesn’t matter if schools are a priority, if the system prioritizing them ceases to function.

My oldest daughter woke up with a mild fever a few days before she was supposed to start primary school last Wednesday in London. Although her symptoms cleared up quickly, the damage was done: without a negative Covid test or 10 days of isolation, she could not go to school.

Unfortunately the government testing program, which is supposed to provide free tests to all who qualify and is the cornerstone of the country’s reopening plan, had ground to a halt. There were no tests available for her. Eventually, desperate for my daughter to not miss her first day, I paid nearly $500 for a private doctor to come to our home and administer a test, only to discover that private labs are now overloaded as well. After days of delay, the results came back negative, but she had to wait until this week to join her class.

In addition to a very disappointed four year old, that made for a chaotic week of scrambling to juggle work, child care and the other complications of pandemic life.

I am fortunate to have an egalitarian marriage, patient editors and a job that can be done remotely at odd hours. But many parents simply cannot make such circumstances work.

In the United States, home-schooling “pods,” in which a small group of parents band together and hire tutors for their children at great expense, might help children learn, but they add to the burdens on working parents.

“Those pods require a lot of coordination,” Dr. Olivetti said. “And those costs will invariably fall primarily on mothers.”

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World

FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO: This Carousel Has Had Quite a Ride. Will Anyone in Japan Save It?

FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO


TOKYO — From the shrines of Nikko and the temples of Kyoto to the castles of Matsumoto and Himeji, the Japanese are fiercely proud of the country’s centuries-old monuments of cultural heritage.

Not so for a 113-year-old carousel in the nation’s capital. Despite a celebrated history that includes roots in Germany, a visit by Theodore Roosevelt, a stint in Coney Island in Brooklyn, and nearly half a century entertaining visitors to the Toshimaen Amusement Park in Tokyo, the El Dorado now sits in storage, its fate unknown.

The merry-go-round, and the faded time capsule of a park that housed it, are making way for a Harry Potter theme park — a familiar tale in a very old country that tends to discard the merely somewhat old for the new.

With the carousel’s last whirls came a final flicker of nostalgia, as hundreds rushed to ride its hand-carved horses and ornate wood chariots before the park shut down in late August.

Four days before the closing, Keiko Aizawa, 42, stood in line in the wilting heat with her 2-year-old son. “It is one of the most cherished memories from when I was young,” Ms. Aizawa said. “We would always come in the summer.”

Yet those visits ended some 30 years ago. It was only the news that the Art Nouveau carousel would be carted away that had her feeling sentimental. “I really want them to find a place for it,” she said.

Nostalgia, though, is fleeting. Historic preservationists fear that the Japanese public will not rally to save the merry-go-round, as groups in the United States and Europe have done for other carousels and amusement park rides.

After World War II, the Japanese government passed a law under which structures built after the 17th century could be designated as cultural heritage properties. “Prior to that, people thought ‘Oh, it’s too new; it’s not an important cultural property,’” said Michiru Kanade, an architectural historian and conservationist who lectures at the Tokyo University of the Arts.

But even now, she said, public understanding of how to mount historic preservation campaigns “is something that is not so widely known.”

Japan’s view of what makes a cultural treasure may in part be a function of necessity. After the air raids that flattened many cities during World War II, continuous urban renewal has become a feature of the country. And with the ever-present threat of earthquakes, structures are often razed and rebuilt to upgrade safety standards.

More fundamentally, the mountainous island country has only so much space for its 126 million inhabitants. “People say the land is so precious that we can’t keep old buildings the way they are,” said Natsuko Akagawa, a senior lecturer in the humanities at the University of Queensland in Australia who specializes in cultural heritage and museum studies.

But if the carousel is “going to deteriorate in a storeroom,” she said, “that’s the saddest ending.”

Patrick Wentzel, president of the National Carousel Association, an American conservation group, said the El Dorado was probably one of just a dozen such set pieces in the world. Leaving a jewel like it locked up and out of use poses risks of its own, he said.

“In several cases, things sat in storage and things seemed to disappear,” Mr. Wentzel said.

Even if the El Dorado is not yet regarded as old enough to warrant a historic designation in Japan, he added, “this will be 500 years old in 400 years.”

For now, the Seibu Railway Company, the owner of the land where the carousel stood, has not said where it is stored or whether it will reopen in a new spot. At a closing ceremony for the park, the head of Toshimaen, Tatsuya Yoda, proclaimed that the El Dorado would “continue shining forever,” but it was not clear whether he meant merely in memory or in another location.

The El Dorado took a circuitous route to Tokyo. Designed in 1907 by Hugo Haase, a German mechanical engineer, it could seat 154 riders and featured 4,200 mirrored pieces and paintings of goddesses and Cupids on the underside of the canopy.

After Emperor Wilhelm II invited Roosevelt to Germany to see the carousel in 1910, Mr. Haase proposed that it be moved to the United States. A year later, the owners of the Steeplechase Amusement Park in Coney Island imported the carousel to Brooklyn.

Local lore has it that visitors including Al Capone and Marilyn Monroe rode the El Dorado before the Steeplechase Park closed in 1964 and the merry-go-round was moved to storage for the first time. One of three stone lions that had pulled a chariot on top of a pavilion that housed the carousel is displayed in the Brooklyn Museum.

The owners of Toshimaen, which featured Japan’s first lazy river pool and several other German-made rides, heard of the El Dorado and bid on it, sight unseen. The disassembled carousel traveled by sea to Tokyo in 1969, where the parts arrived in serious disrepair, layers of garish paint peeling from the wooden horses and pigs. Refurbishment took two years.

More than 20 years later, when Japan’s go-go property-based bubble burst, people thrown out of work could no longer afford visits to an amusement park, and Toshimaen’s visitorship plunged. Then, as the economy slowly recovered, other amusement parks like Disneyland Tokyo, Hello Kitty World and Universal Studios Japan opened, siphoning off Toshimaen’s customers.

The park did little to update its attractions: When it closed, a ride of spinning cars still featured likenesses of Tina Turner circa “Private Dancer” and Prince of “Purple Rain.”

In the days before Toshimaen’s demise, some standing in line for a last go-round on the carousel said they were looking forward to the park’s replacement.

“It is sad that it is going away, because of the memories,” Suzu Homi, 37, said as she and her 4-year-old twin sons waited their turn. “But when it becomes a new Harry Potter park, people who have not come here before may visit. People who come to Toshimaen are just coming out of nostalgia.”

For others, though, the carousel was dearer to their hearts. Late last month, Hiroshi Uchida, a 40-year veteran of the park and a connoisseur of the carousel, spoke to a group of nearly 100 visitors at a small museum chronicling its history.

Mr. Uchida’s fervent hope, he said, was to see the carousel — which he estimated had been ridden by 56 million people over its years in Tokyo — operate again in a fourth location.

“I think there is a lot of discussion about where to put it,” said Mr. Uchida, who worked as an engineer at the park and was so passionate about the El Dorado that he married a park colleague in front of it. “It could be three or four years before it opens again.”

As he spoke, a woman filming his talk on her cellphone wiped away tears. On a wall in the museum, hundreds of visitors had stuck brightly colored Post-it notes with wistful messages. “I cried while taking a spin around the El Dorado one last time. Thank you,” read one.

In an interview after his talk, Mr. Uchida said that perhaps Seibu, the park’s owner, could re-erect the carousel behind one of its hotels. Or maybe another park, or even a village, could accommodate it, as he had seen other carousels in town centers in Europe.

Ultimately, he said, he hoped the carousel could stay in Tokyo.

“If the El Dorado has a spirit, I think it would feel very unsettling to move again,” Mr. Uchida said. “It thought it had a permanent home in Germany and then it got moved to New York. And then Japan. Now it has been here for 50 years.”

“You can’t put a price on that,” he said.

FABRIZIO IODICE DELGADO