Most Americans have been wearing masks since spring, the C.D.C. says.

Despite President Trump’s very public resistance to mask-wearing for much of this year, a newly released survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows that a vast majority of Americans of all ages have been wearing face coverings since April.

The data, released in the agency’s weekly Morbidity and Mortality Report, is roughly in line with other polls showing that most Americans report wearing masks, at least when they are inside stores.

For example, Pew Research reported in August that 85 percent of 13,200 adults they surveyed said they wore masks in stores, up from 65 percent in June.

In a National Geographic poll released early this month, 92 percent of 2,200 Americans surveyed said they always or sometimes wore a mask when leaving the house.

The C.D.C. data, based on three monthly surveys with about 2,000 Americans each time, cover only the period from April to June.

A C.D.C. spokesman attributed the delay in the release of the surveys findings because of “the overwhelming amount of research going on at the agency.”

The survey asked about six risk-mitigation behaviors: mask-wearing, hand-washing, keeping six feet away from others, canceling social activities, avoiding crowds and avoiding restaurants.

In general, the older respondents were, the more of those measures they took. But as early as April, 70 percent of all those aged 18 to 29 reported wearing masks, while 84 percent of those older than 60 did.

By June, 86 percent of young Americans said they were wearing them while 92 percent of the seniors said they were.

Frequent hand-washing or sanitizing was equally popular, but it dropped slightly among all age groups from April to June as scientists realized that the virus was more likely to be transmitted by a mist of tiny droplets than by picking it up from surfaces.

The least popular measures among all age groups were “canceling or postponing pleasure, social or recreational activities” and “avoiding all or some restaurants.”

In their analysis of the data, the authors observed: “Lower engagement in mitigation behaviors among younger adults might be one reason for the increased incidence of Covid-19 cases in this group, which have been shown to precede increases among those 60 years or older.”

The findings, the authors concluded, show the need for clear advice for Americans, “especially for young adults,” to protect themselves, including by wearing masks.

On Friday, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, said on CNN that “if people are not wearing masks, then maybe we should be mandating it.”


‘We believe in science.’ Washington, Oregon and Nevada join California’s vaccine-review plan.

A week after Gov. Gavin Newsom of California announced that a panel of experts from his state would independently review any federally approved coronavirus vaccines before they were administered to residents, the governors of Washington, Oregon and Nevada announced they’d join California’s effort.

The move comes as leaders across the country face a vaccine-development process that many have said they fear is becoming overly politicized.

“We believe in science, public health and safety,” Gov. Jay Inslee of Washington said in a statement. “That is why I am pleased that Washington is joining California and other western states in this effort.”

In September, Gov. Andrew Cuomo of New York announced that his state would independently review any vaccines, saying President Trump had politicized the approval process.

“Frankly, I’m not going to trust the federal government’s opinion,” Mr. Cuomo said at the time.

But in a news briefing on Tuesday, Mr. Newsom emphasized that the extra review was meant to reinforce federal findings and to ensure that the Western states have planned in detail who should be able to receive what are expected to be very limited early doses. It would not, he said, stall or add an additional layer of politics to the process.

“It will not cause delays,” Mr. Newsom said. “It’s going to increase transparency and trust.”

About two-thirds of Californians surveyed in a recent poll by the Public Policy Institute of California said they were concerned about the development of a vaccine moving too quickly.

California’s health secretary, Dr. Mark Ghaly, added that the review would not involve continuing or duplicating any vaccine trials. Rather, the panel will look at data and other information, “a lot of which is publicly reported, through the eyes of experts,” he said.

The review will allow the states to plan for a complex distribution process in detail and with equity in mind.

“The independent review conducted by this panel of doctors, scientists, and health experts will ensure that a safe and effective Covid-19 vaccine is available to everyone, especially communities that have been disproportionately impacted by this disease,” Oregon’s governor, Kate Brown, said in a statement.

This isn’t the first time the governors have collaborated across state lines but outside the purview of the federal government. In April, as many states held back on implementing pandemic-related restrictions, California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada and Colorado formed a so-called Western States Pact.

Mr. Newsom said the group was largely a way of sharing best practices, rather than a formal agreement to act in concert.

Governors have been also outspoken lately about how they think the distribution of vaccines should be handled. Earlier this month Mr. Cuomo, as head of the bipartisan National Governors Association, posed additional questions about how the Trump administration will ensure that states are able to get and distribute vaccines.


At Least 4 Dead as Migrant Boat Capsizes in English Channel

PARIS — At least four people, two of them children, died Tuesday when a boat carrying migrants capsized off France while trying to cross the English Channel to Britain, French authorities said.

Fifteen people were rescued, but search operations were still underway late Tuesday, according to the regional administration for the Nord region. It said in a statement that the victims included a 5-year-old and an 8-year-old, an adult woman and an adult man. The death toll, it warned, could grow.

Aid groups called for more government help for struggling migrants, while British and French authorities expressed their condolences.

Such crossings have become increasingly common in recent years, despite political uproar in Britain and stepped-up police efforts to stop them, but deaths are rare. French authorities reported four migrant deaths in total in small boats crossing the Channel in 2019.

On Tuesday, a sailboat alerted authorities to a migrant boat in distress off the coast of Dunkirk, and France mobilized five vessels and a Belgian helicopter nearby to help with the rescue, according to the regional French maritime agency.

The Dunkirk prosecutor opened an investigation into the cause of the accident, which occurred on a day when weather authorities had warned of gusty winds.

Despite joint police efforts on both sides of the Channel, migrants have long used northern France as a launching point to get into Britain, and the issue has strained relations between the neighbors.

Britain’s Press Association calculates that more than 7,400 migrants have crossed the Channel to Britain by boat so far this year, up from about 1,800 in all of 2019.

Clare Mosely of the migrant support group Care4Calais said: “This unnecessary loss of life has to stop. No one should ever feel they have to get into a fragile craft and risk their lives crossing the Channel, least of all vulnerable children.”


Britain’s Health Workers Face 2d Virus Wave, but This Time With Less Support

People have also begun complaining about long wait times.

“There is some disbelief that you’ve had six months to prepare for this and why haven’t you been training more nurses,” said Dr. Tamás Szakmany, an intensive care doctor in Newport, Wales. But, he said, “it’s not just like you’ve got a car factory and you suddenly need more transmissions, so you train the factory workers to build more transmissions. It’s just not that simple.”

Among doctors and nurses, a sense of battle fatigue has set in. Extra weekend shifts that were intended to be temporary have lasted through the summer, especially in northern cities where coronavirus wards remained busy even as a national lockdown was lifted in the summer. Health workers are calling in sick, many of them with anxiety and depression.

Rapid testing remains scarce for doctors and nurses. And health workers on coronavirus wards are supplied only with basic surgical masks, not the heavier-duty N-95 masks reserved for intensive care units.

“The first time around, it’s almost like a once-in-a-lifetime kind of medical challenge,” said Paul Whitaker, a respiratory doctor in Bradford, in northern England, where the number of coronavirus patients has returned to its early May peak.

“The hospital provided packed lunches for us all,” Dr. Whitaker added. “People were sending good luck messages. But the prospect of going into another six months, which is almost certainly what it’s going to be, is relatively frightening. How are you going to maintain the morale, the focus and the energy of all these people?”

In the ex-mining and manufacturing towns in England’s north that have been hit hardest by the latest surge of infections, doctors are especially harried. Nearly 40 percent of critically ill patients are now classified as the country’s most deprived, compared to a quarter of such patients in the spring and early summer.


Are masks still required in Louisiana? Lawmakers say no. The governor says yes, and sues.

Louisiana’s statewide mask mandate and other coronavirus restrictions were up in the air on Tuesday, after Republican legislators used an obscure clause in state law to suspend the public health emergency declared by the governor.

Gov. John Bel Edwards, a Democrat, had a quick response: He sued.

Orders issued under the public health emergency require that most residents wear masks in public; limit the number of people who can attend high school football games; and require bars to close in areas where more than 5 percent of coronavirus tests are coming back positive, among other restrictions.

But state law says that either house of the State Legislature can end an emergency with a petition signed by a majority of its members. And a group of 65 Republican members of the House of Representatives submitted such a petition on Friday, calling for a seven-day pause.

“I have no problem with people wearing a mask,” Alan Seabaugh, the representative who organized the petition, said Tuesday in an interview. “I do have a huge problem with mandating a mask, because I don’t think government has authority to do that, ever, in any circumstances.”

He said he had only worn a mask once since the pandemic began — on an airplane, because the airline required it.

The state attorney general, Jeff Landry, released a statement on Saturday saying the petition was valid, and that the governor must issue a proclamation informing the public that the restrictions had ended.

But Mr. Edwards wasn’t having it. Saying the petition was unconstitutional, he sued the Louisiana State Legislature, the House of Representatives, and the Speaker of the House, Clay Schexnayder.

“On the very same day when the United States also reported 83,757 new cases of Covid-19 — the highest single-day total in this country — and 21 more Louisianans died from Covid-19, 65 members of the Louisiana House of Representatives chose to sign a petition, apparently claiming the public health emergency to be over,” the lawsuit said.

Christina Stephens, the governor’s spokeswoman, said the mask mandate and all the other restrictions in the governor’s public health order remain in place.

The legislators’ petition was flawed, she said in an email, because it came from only one house and because public health authorities were not adequately consulted — and in any case, the governor questioned whether the petition provision was valid.

Mr. Seabaugh called the constitutionality question “ridiculous” and said that any bar owners who try to reopen now and are fined should file civil rights complaints.

Louisiana had a major surge in coronavirus cases in April and another in July. Since then the state has stabilized at a lower but still worrisome level, with a recent average of 676 cases a day as of Monday. In all, the state has reported at least 184,724 cases and 5,872 deaths since the pandemic began, according to a New York Times database.


Turkey Sentences U.S. Consulate Employee to Over 5 Years in Jail

A Turkish court on Tuesday sentenced a Turkish employee of the American Consulate in Istanbul to more than five years in jail after finding that he had knowingly aided a terrorist group.

Nazmi Mete Canturk, who worked as a security guard, is one of three Turkish staffers at U.S. Consulates facing similar charges, a situation that has raised tensions between the two longtime allies.

U.S. diplomats maintain that the charges against the employees are baseless, and critics of Turkey have said they amount to political hostage-taking. Since 2017, the men have been in jail, under house arrest or under travel restrictions, despite protests from American officials.

Mr. Canturk was charged with being a member of a religious organization led by the Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen, whom President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has accused of masterminding a failed coup in 2016 from his self-imposed exile in Pennsylvania. The attempted coup left 251 people dead, mostly civilians, and wounded more than 2,000 others.

In the years since, Mr. Erdogan’s attempt to hold thousands accountable for their alleged involvement in the coup has drawn criticism from international rights groups.

Mr. Canturk was not immediately taken into custody on Tuesday because he still has a right to appeal. In all, he faces a sentence of five years, two months and 15 days. Mr. Canturk’s wife and daughter had also faced charges, but they were acquitted.

Mr. Canturk, whose trial began in June 2019, has been barred by the court from leaving the country.

In June, Metin Topuz, another longtime employee of the U.S. Consulate in Istanbul, was found guilty on similar charges and sentenced to more than eight years in prison. He is now serving his sentence.

Another consulate employee, Hamza Ulucay, worked as a translator in the U.S. Consulate in the southern Turkish city of Adana for 30 years before he was detained. He was convicted on the same charge in January, and was sentenced to four and a half years in prison but was released after the court determined that his time had been served.

Since 2016, around 70,000 people have been brought before Turkish courts to face charges related to the coup attempt, some in mass trials of more than 100 people at a time. Many of the trials have taken years and are expected to continue through the appeals for several more years.


Your Wednesday Briefing – The New York Times

The Russian government on Tuesday made its boldest move yet to try to stem a second wave of coronavirus infections, mandating masks in public places throughout the country.

The federal health watchdog agency also urged governors to order restaurants and entertainment venues to close by 11 p.m. It was an unusual step; President Vladimir V. Putin had resisted taking any nationwide measures.

The numbers: Russia recorded 16,550 new cases on Tuesday, the fifth day in a row with more than 16,000 new cases. The government also reported 320 coronavirus deaths, a single-day record. And the lower house of parliament released a staggering metric for its assembly’s representatives: 20 percent have or have had the virus, and 38 members are currently hospitalized with it.

The coronavirus was gathering lethal speed when President Trump met his Brazilian counterpart, Jair Bolsonaro, on March 7 for dinner at Mar-a-Lago, Mr. Trump’s resort in Palm Beach, Fla.

After returning to Brazil, 22 members of Mr. Bolsonaro’s delegation tested positive for the virus, yet he was not alarmed. Mr. Trump had shared a cure, Mr. Bolsonaro told advisers: a box of the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine, the unproven treatment that Mr. Trump was promoting as a remedy for Covid-19.

The dinner cemented a partnership rooted in a shared disregard for the virus.

Details: Both leaders pushed to defund the region’s leading health agency — the Pan American Health Organization — and drove 10,000 Cuban doctors and nurses out of impoverished areas of Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and El Salvador. They also blocked assistance and pushed false cures, making a bad situation worse by dismantling defenses.

Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha on Tuesday dismissed calls from opposition parties to resign at a parliament session he had called to discuss months of protests demanding his departure and reforms to the monarchy.

“I will not run away from problems. I will not leave my duty by resigning at a time when the country has problems,” Mr. Prayuth, a former army ruler, told the assembly, whose entire upper house was picked by his old junta.

The protesters had given Mr. Prayuth a deadline to resign from his post, delivering him a resignation letter to sign last week. Though he revoked an emergency decree, he does not appear to be budging on larger issues.

Context: Tens of thousands of people have protested for months, demanding changes to the constitution and checks to the monarchy’s power. It began as a student-led revolt against the military’s influence on the classroom, and ballooned into a movement with a sweeping range of issues and supporters.

In the United States, spikes in gun purchases are often driven by fear. Many gun buyers now are saying they are motivated by a new destabilizing sense that is pushing people who had considered themselves anti-gun to buy weapons — and people who already have them to buy more.

Snapshot: Above, a protest in Bangladesh on Tuesday sparked by French President Emmanuel Macron’s remarks on Islam. Muslims have held demonstrations and called for boycotting French goods following police raids in France, after the killing of a high school teacher who showed caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad in class.

What we’re reading: This excerpt in The New Yorker on U.S. health care reform from President Barack Obama’s upcoming memoir. “There’s a lot of fascinating detail about American politics, but also some touching passages on fatherhood, the family dog and sailing,” writes Carole Landry of the Briefings Team.

Cook: This Japanese style tuna noodle salad is dressed in a sweet-salty vinaigrette of soy, sesame oil, mirin and rice vinegar.

Listen: These news podcasts for children are perfect for young people seeking a better understanding of what the adults are fussing about and for parents who want to help their children learn how to engage with the world.

Do: Herbal teas can soothe and restore. Here’s a step-by-step guide to growing brew-friendly plants at home.

We have plenty of ideas and we’re happy to share them in our At Home collection on what to read, cook, watch, and do while staying safe at home.

Most businesses in China, whether the fanciest hotel or a roadside fruit stand, accept digital payment through apps, in particular Alipay and WeChat. Our On Tech newsletter writer spoke with Ray Zhong about the payment apps and whether China offers a glimpse at a cashless future for the rest of us.

How did Alipay and WeChat get so popular in China?

Ray: Credit cards were never prevalent in China. The country skipped over a generation of finance and went straight to smartphone-based digital payments. And the apps are simple for businesses. If a business can print a QR code, it can get paid by app. They don’t need special machines as businesses do to accept credit cards or many mobile payments like Apple Pay.

What’s useful about these payment apps?

China has a stodgy state-dominated banking system. These apps allowed small businesses to connect to modern financial infrastructure easily.

I know paying with a credit card isn’t tremendously difficult, but making it a fraction easier to buy stuff has enabled different kinds of commerce. You probably wouldn’t buy something on Instagram for 50 cents with your credit card, but people in China do buy digital books one chapter at a time.

How did China’s government respond to these two apps creating a financial system outside its explicit control?

The government has been attentive. It put a cap on fees that Alipay and WeChat can charge merchants. And where the apps make their real money — in making loans and selling investments — the government wants to make sure borrowers aren’t being gouged and investment funds aren’t taking on excessive risks.

Alipay and WeChat deliberately now say they are partners to banks, not competitors.

That’s it for this briefing. See you next time.

— Melina

Thank youTo Theodore Kim and Jahaan Singh for the break from the news. You can reach the team at

P.S.• We’re listening to “The Daily.” Our latest episode is about what we learned from the last contested U.S. election. • Here’s our Mini Crossword, and a clue: Word in four U.S. state names (three letters). You can find all our puzzles here.• Carolyn Ryan, a leader of The Times’s Diversity, Equity and Inclusion initiative, has been promoted to deputy managing editor.


To combat the virus, some schools have moved classes outside.

First graders sit crisscross applesauce on tree stumps, hands sky-high to ask a question. Third graders peer closely at the plants growing in class gardens, or spread themselves out in a sunflower-filled space to read. When the sun beats down, students take shelter under shades made from boat sails.

That’s what a school day is like this year in one community on Cape Cod, where every student now spends at least part of the day learning outdoors — at least when the rain holds off.

Seeking ways to teach safely during the pandemic, schools across the United States have embraced the idea of classes in the open air, as Americans did during disease outbreaks a century ago.

The efforts to throw tents over playgrounds and arrange desks in parks and parking lots have brought new life to an outdoor education movement, inspired in part by Scandinavian “forest schools” where children bundle up against frigid temperatures for long romps in the snow.

“The outside provides much more flexibility,” said Sharon Danks, the chief executive of Green Schoolyards America and the coordinator of the National Covid-19 Outdoor Learning Initiative, which formed in May. “You can have a six-foot-apart seating chart, and have enough space to move around.”

While some educators balked at the costs and logistical hurdles, others embraced the idea, with teachers learning carpentry to build their own outdoor classrooms, and parents raising money and hitting up local businesses for lumber.

“Covid has hastened the pace of a shift toward trying to take better advantage of the outdoors,” said Maria Libby, the superintendent of the Five Town Community School District in Rockport, Maine, who bought tents and Adirondack chairs for outdoor classrooms.


French Response to Killing of Teacher Stokes Ire in Muslim World

French goods were taken off shop shelves there and in Qatar, a strong supporter of Mr. Erdogan and the Muslim Brotherhood. Le Train Bleu restaurant in Doha, the Qatari capital, a replica of the one in Paris’ Gare de Lyon, will now serve French meals without any imported French ingredients.

Jordan’s foreign ministry did not criticize Macron directly but condemned the “continued publication of caricatures of Prophet Muhammad under the pretext of freedom of expression.” It also denounced any “discriminatory and misleading attempts that seek to link Islam with terrorism.”

In Saudi Arabia, the country’s state-run press agency quoted an anonymous foreign ministry official saying the kingdom “rejects any attempt to link Islam and terrorism and denounces the offensive cartoons of the Prophet.” The kingdom’s highest religious authority said that “defaming” the Prophet “only serves extremists,’’ and that “these insults have nothing to do with freedom of expression.”

France warned its citizens in Muslim countries to be careful, but there has so far been little violence. Much of the official reaction seemed aimed at showing offended publics that their leaders were at least listening, especially given the ambivalence of much of the Muslim world about some Arab countries moving to recognize Israel, said François Heisbourg, a French defense analyst.

But the reactions underscored the chasm of perception surrounding France’s response to the killing of the teacher, Samuel Paty, 47, especially when the differences are amplified through the bullhorn of domestic politics.

Many French found Mr. Macron’s desire, as he put it, to “build an Islam in France that can be an Islam of Enlightenment,” to be patronizing of Muslims. But few have quibbled publicly with the breadth of his crackdown. His interior minister, Gérald Darmanin, has suggested that ethnic food aisles in supermarkets should be closed.

Domestic politics are involved on both sides, particularly when it comes to the sparring between the French and Turkish presidents, noted Sinan Ulgen, a former Turkish diplomat who is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Europe.


Protesters in Italy and Spain clash with police as they call for ‘freedom’ from virus restrictions.

Protests broke out in several Italian cities on Monday after a government decree aimed at stemming the spread of the coronavirus went into effect.

Hundreds of demonstrators in Catania, Milan, Turin and other cities blocked traffic, set off firecrackers, burned garbage cans and clashed with the police as they protested the new rules, which ordered bars and restaurants to close at 6 p.m. and shut cinemas, theaters and gyms until Nov. 24. Many protesters chanted: “Freedom, freedom.”

The decree comes after a sharp spike in virus cases: Italy has recorded an average of 17,000 new cases a day over the past week. The country, which was hit hard during the first wave of the virus, has reported 542,789 total cases and at least 37,000 deaths.

After a monthslong lockdown earlier this year, Italian bar and restaurant owners said the new restrictions would force many to close for good. Some placed signs in store windows that read: “Forced to close at 6 p.m., but it is our right to have a future.”

A petition by leaders of Italy’s entertainment industries, as well as directors and actors, said that the new closures were unjustified, given the strict protocols that had been in place since the summer.

After protests on Friday turned violent in Naples, one of the cities where an overnight curfew had already gone into effect, Italy’s interior ministry warned that the demonstrations had been infiltrated by individuals who were trying to stir up trouble, though peaceful protests were also held in several cities.

These acts of violence “have nothing to do with forms of civil dissent and the legitimate concern of entrepreneurs and workers related to the difficult economic situation,” Interior Minister Luciana Lamorgese said in statement. She said that prosecutors were investigating the protests.

The far-right group Forza Nuova clashed with police in Rome on Saturday after a demonstration to protest the overnight curfew and “health dictatorship.”

In Spain, hundreds of demonstrators gathered in Barcelona on Monday to protest the nighttime curfew that came into force a day earlier, as part of Spain’s latest state of emergency. The protest ended with some demonstrators clashing with police officers and burning trash containers. Barcelona’s local police estimated that about 800 people took part in the demonstration, with one of them detained.

And on Tuesday, Spanish doctors staged a nationwide walkout to protest work conditions and hiring policies in the country’s public health care system. Hospitals were able to continue operating with minimal staffing. The doctors plan to repeat the protests on every last Tuesday of the month until the government increases resources.

Resistance to new rules is also hardening in northern England, where lawmakers urged Prime Minister Boris Johnson to create a “clear road map” out of lockdown restrictions and asked for economic support, saying the region was being disproportionately affected by the pandemic.

Northern England has seen “disruption unparalleled to other parts of the country,” more than 50 members of Mr. Johnson’s Conservative Party said in a letter, adding that the pandemic had exposed systemic disadvantages between the country’s northern and southern regions.

Officials have imposed the country’s harshest restrictions on parts of England’s north, including the cities of Liverpool and Manchester, with pubs, gyms and some other nonessential businesses closed. But local officials have feuded with the government on providing lifelines for the region’s economy, while some residents have taken issue with seemingly contradictory rules.